Abstracts Unlocking Sources conference
The abstracts appear in alphabetical order of speakers.
“Europeana Collections 1914-1918 – The Learning Microsite” – Abi Barber
As part of Europeana Collections 1914-1918, the British Library has developed a new World War One web resource. The site is aimed primarily at students aged 16-18 and lifelong learners, and provides visitors with access to a wealth of previously inaccessible historical source material supplied by a consortium of leading European libraries. Bringing together articles, high resolution images, film, audio and interpretation provided by experts, this is an innovative site that will make a unique contribution to the study of the war. Content is presented in themes, such as the experience of soldiers and civilians, propaganda, creative responses and historiography. The site explores the war from a pan-European perspective, with content provided by 11 partners across eight countries.
“Türen im Kaninchenbau – Wohin führt welches Portal? Internetthemenportale zum Ersten Weltkrieg unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Angebote zu Ost- und Südosteuropa” – Hans Bauer
Die Erforschung der Geschichte des Ersten Weltkriegs umfasst neben Globaldarstellungen kaum zu zählende Bearbeitungen im Detail auf regionaler, biographischer, soziologischer etc. Ebene. Die Heterogenität der zugänglichen Quellen und Literatur motiviert grundsätzlich zu einer Systematisierung, die zielgerichtet die unterschiedlichen Herangehensweisen an Erfahrungen des Ersten Weltkriegs strukturiert und somit Orientierung bietet. Wo ließe sich die Masse an Information besser einfangen als im Netz? Namhafte Themenportale – von Clio online über First World War Centenary und natürlich Europeana 1914-1918 – veranschaulichen die Vielschichtigkeit und Komplexität des Themas Erster Weltkrieg. Allerdings auf unterschiedliche Weise – und wie im Kaninchenbau von Alice im Wunderland öffnen sich nicht jedem die Türen, mal sind sie zu klein, mal zu groß, mal fehlt der Schlüssel. Historiker erwarten gut aufbereitete Dokumente, die zumindest auf Metadatenebene granular kommentiert sind, während Schülerinnen und Schüler unter Umständen eher Wert auf einen multimedialen Mix legen. Institutionen, die ihre Materialien digital veröffentlichen, stehen ebenfalls vor der Frage, welche Präsentation für sie geeignet ist. Im Beitrag werden ausgewählte Portale auf ihre Lösungen für die Aufbereitung von Informationen und digitalen Dokumenten hin untersucht. Insbesondere werden Kontextualisierungsstrategien sowie der Ausbau durch verschiedene Funktionen und Verlinkungen in den Blick gefasst. Mit einem Ausblick auf die Konzeption eines regionalen Themenportals zum Ersten Weltkrieg in Osteuropa im Rahmen des Projektes OstDok.
“Entrances to the rabbit burrow – Which portal leads where? Thematic internet portals on the First World War, with a special focus on resources regarding Eastern and Southeast Europe”
The research on the history of World War I has produced global presentations and a countless number of detailed studies at regional, biographical, sociological, etc. levels. The heterogeneity of the available sources and literature requires a systematisation which gives a structure to the different approaches to experiences connected with World War I. Where else than on the web could we better systematically manage this mass of information? Renowned portals – from Clio online to First World War Centenary to Europeana 1914-1918 – illustrate the many aspects and the complexity of the topic World War I. However, they do it in different ways – and just as with the rabbit burrow of Alice in Wonderland, doors do not open to everyone, sometimes they are too small, sometimes they are too large or the key is míssing. Historians expect well edited documents, which at least at the metadata level have granular comments, whereas pupils may be more interested in a multi-midea mix. Institutions which publish their materials in digital format have to decide which kind of presentation is suitable for them. The paper will look at specific portals and analyse the solutions regarding the presentation of information and digital documents. It will especially consider contextualisation strategies as well as the development of different functions and linkings. With an outlook on the concept of a regional thematic portal on the First World War in Eastern Europe – in the framework of the project OstDok.
“It’s not just a Game! The First World War and Computer Games” – Martin Bayer
For many countries, the First World War was a central event in history and is highly important for their respective culture of remembrance. In the coming years, there will be a massive output of media productions addressing the Great War in its various aspects. One im-portant contemporary medium should not be forgotten: since years, video games have left their shadowy existence as a side issue. Having reached the societal mainstream, they are not any longer played by pimpled and lonely computer nerds only. PCs, game consoles and mobile devices such as smart phones reach broad target audiences in all age groups.
At the same time, digital games became recognised as cultural assets. In fact, they are not just increasingly sophisticated in technical terms, but the complexity of the characters and storylines as well as the variety of interactions provide an impressive level of immersion into virtual worlds. Even more so, the public perception of historical events becomes shaped by movies and video games, which seldom avoid reminding that they are based on true stories.
While the Second World War is the background to countless computer games, comparatively few do address the First World War, mostly either aerial combat simulations or turn-based strategy games. Recently, a significant number of games try different approaches. The first part of this presentation will show the history and presence of First World War video games, including educational “serious games” or artistic attempts.
Secondly, the prospects of computer games to convey historical knowledge about the First World War will be examined, beyond the portrayal of myths and national stereotypes. Video games could be a chance for communicating the Great War to a target audience that other-wise becomes increasingly difficult to reach.
“It’s not just a Game! Der Erste Weltkrieg im Computerspiel”
Der Erste Weltkrieg ist für viele der kriegsbeteiligten Länder von zentraler Bedeutung, auch und gerade in der Erinnerungskultur. Im Rahmen der anstehenden Jahrestage werden sich zahlreiche Medienproduktionen dokumentarisch oder fiktional mit dem Krieg auseinander-setzen, natürlich in Form von Büchern und Filmen, aber auch Graphic Novels, Theaterstücke und Kompositionen.
Ein digitales Medium sollte hierbei nicht vergessen werden: Computerspiele haben seit Jahren ihr Schattendasein als Randerscheinung verlassen und den Mainstream der Gesellschaft erreicht. PCs, neue Spielkonsolen und nicht zuletzt mobile Geräte wie Smartphones erreichen breite Zielgruppen in allen Altersklassen. Gleichsam werden die oft nicht nur technisch aufwändigen Spiele als Kulturgut anerkannt: Komplexe Charaktere, Handlungen und Interak-tionsmöglichkeiten erlauben eine Immersion in Spielwelten, wie sie noch vor wenigen Jahren kaum vorstellbar schienen. Zudem wird die öffentliche Wahrnehmung zunehmend durch Filme und Videospiele beeinflusst.
Kriege werden in verschiedensten Computerspielgenres thematisiert, nicht nur in den bekannten Shootern. Die Tiefe der Auseinandersetzung mit der historischen Basis ist so unter-schiedlich wie das Gamedesign. Der Erste Weltkrieg wurde und wird ebenfalls in Computerspielen behandelt, wenn auch in deutlich geringerer Anzahl als z.B. der Zweite Weltkrieg. Der erste Teil der Präsentation stellt die unterschiedlichen Ansätze vor: einfache wie komplexe Unterhaltungsprodukte, aber auch edukative Serious Games und künstlerische Ansätze.
Der zweite Teil der Präsentation betrachtet die Möglichkeiten, über Computerspiele Aspekte des Ersten Weltkrieges zeitgemäß und über die Darstellung von Mythen und nationalen Stereotypen hinausgehend zu präsentieren. Computerspiele stellen eine Chance dar, den Ersten Weltkrieg für sonst oft nur schwierig zu erreichende Zielgruppen zu vermitteln.
“Digital sources in teaching of history and didactics” – Daniel Bernsen
The presentation proposes a report about the use of „unlocked sources“ on World War I in the history classroom. Whilst learning and teaching history in school was until short ago limited to a “pedagogy of scarcity” (John McClymer), digitisation now provides us with an almost unlimited supply of historical primary sources posted online. Using the example of the outcomes of the Europeana 1914-1918 projects the question is to be discussed how this abundance may change the way of teaching and learning history in school. Whereas history as a subject in school has been and still is mainly focused on the analysis of written texts, the major part of the digitised sources are visual (photos and films). Working with these primary sources in the classroom demands a focus on different methods, skills and tools. The presentation will put the emphasis on discussing the possibilities of interactive whiteboards in this process.
“Die französischen Kriegsgefangenenzeitschrift Le Pour et le Contre (1916-1917) – Von der Beinahezerstörung über die Digitalisierung zu einem neuen Kapitel der Regensburger Stadtgeschichte” – Dominik Bohmann
Im Frühjahr 2013 erstand die Staatliche Bibliothek Regensburg die durch einen Zufall in den antiquarischen Handel gelangte Lagerzeitschrift Le Pour et le Contre – Journal hebdomadaire des Prisonniers de Regensburg. Die Digitalisierung ermöglicht eine wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem Zeitzeugnis an der Universität Regensburg. Die Gefangenenzeitschrift besitzt einen herausragenden militärgeschichtlichen, soziologischen, literaturgeschichtlichen und lokalhistorischen Wert, da die Existenz eines Gefangenenlagers der Regensburger Stadtgeschichtsschreibung bislang unbekannt war.
Die Zeitschrift enthält in weiten Teilen Auszüge des Tagebuchs eines französischen Soldaten, deren Analyse ein genaues Bild der Ankunft und ersten provisorischen Unterbringungen der Gefangenen Ende August 1914 liefert.Zudem lässt der Text Rückschlüsse auf die alltägliche Situationder Gefangenen im wenige Monate später auf einer Donauinsel errichteten Kriegsgefangenenlager zu. Hierüber berichtet der Kurzvortag ebenso wie über den Zusammenhang mit Zusatzinformationen aus dem Stadtarchiv Regensburg, dem bayerischen Hauptstaatsarchiv, den Archiven des Internationalen Roten Kreuzes (Genf) sowieDokumenten vonEuropeana 1914-1918. Zugleich geht es um Digitalisierungsprozesse, die Arbeit mit digitalisierten Beständen, um deren Vorteile, aber auch Risiken.
“The French prisoners-of-war journal Le Pour et le Contre (1916-1917) – From near-destruction to the digitisation to a new chapter in the history of the city of Regensburg”
In spring 2013 the State Library Regensburg acquired the camp journal Le Pour et le Contre – Journal hebdomadaire des Prisonniers de Regensburg which by accident had been on the antiquarian market. Digitisation allows a scientific study of the contemporary document at the University of Regensburg. The prisoners-of-war journal has an outstanding value in terms of military history, social studies, literary and local history, especially because until that moment the existence of the camp had been unknown to the historiography of Regensburg.
The journal contains many extracts from the diary of a French soldier who gives a precise description of the arrival and first provisional accommodation of the prisoners at the end of August 1914. The text gives an idea about the day-to-day situation of the prisoners in the prisoners-of-war camp which was built a few months later on an island in the Donau. This will be one topic of the presentation, another topic will be the relation to additional information from the city archives of Regensburg, the Bavarian State Archives, the Archives of the International Red Cross (Geneva) as well as documents of Europeana 1914-1918. The presentation will also report on digitisation processes, the work with digitised holdings, their advantages and risks.
“Zeugnisse, Erinnerung und Kriegsliteratur im französischsprachigen Belgien” – Laurence Boudart
Die Archives & Musée de la Littérature (AML) sind eine Archivs-, Dokumentations-, Forschungs- und Verbreitungsinstitution für das französischsprachige Literaturerbe Belgiens. Die AML nehmen am “Europeana Collections 1914-1918”-Projekt über die KBR mit Dokumenten aus ihrer eigenen Sammlung teil, u.a. mit handschriftlichem Material, Fotos und Büchern.
Der Forscher oder im Allgemeinen jeder, der sich für die belgische sogenannte Kriegsliteratur und -zeit interessierte, musste sich bisher nach Brüssel begeben, um in unserem Archiv zu forschen. Dank der Digitalisierung und der weltweiten Verfügbarkeit von Daten und Quellen ist diese Situation im Begriff sich grundlegend zu ändern. Auch die Rahmenbedingungen für die Forschung (und die Alltagskultur) befinden sich in einem tiefgreifenden Wandel, wobei viele Fragen und Weichenstellungen allerdings noch offen sind.
Davon möchte ich in meinem Vortrag einiges zur Diskussion stellen, vor allem folgende Punkte:
- Inwiefern hilft die Lektüre eines Tagebuches, das ein Schriftsteller während des Krieges geschrieben hat, bei der Herausbildung eines kollektiven Gedächtnisses? Inwieweit unterscheiden sich die (persönlichen) Texte von Schriftstellern von diejenigen, die von Unbekannten verfasst wurden? Welches Bild des Krieges geben sie wieder?
- Im welchen Maß können beispielsweise poetische Texte aus der Kriegszeit eine «andere» Vorstellung vom Krieg geben und folglich bei der Herausbildung einer Europäischen Erinnerungskultur helfen?
“Testimonies, memory and war literature in French-speaking Belgium”
The Archives & Musée de la Littérature (AML) is, as one may conclude from the name, an archive and documentation centre, as well as an institution for the research and dissemination of the Frenchliterary heritage of Belgium. Via the Royal Library of Belgium (KBR), AML participates in the project „Europeana Collections 1914-1918“ and provides documents from its own collections: handwritten materials, photos and books.
The researcher, or in general everyone who is interested in Belgian literature always had to travel to Brussels when he wanted to consult our archive collections. Through the digitisation and the worldwide availability of data and sources, the situation is going to change completely. The framework conditions for scholarly research undergo a radical change, but many questions and decisions still remain open.
That is what I would like to discuss in my lecture, especially the following points:
- How does the reading of a diary which an author wrote during the war contribute to the development of a collective memory? What are the differences between the (personal) texts of authors and the texts of unknown writers? What images of the war are created?
- To what extent, for example, can literary texts written during the war give a «different» view of war and thus contribute to the development of a European memory culture?
“An meine Völker – Die Erster-Weltkrieg-Bestände der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek auf Europeana (The First World War-Collection of the Austrian National Library on Europeana)” – Zsuzsanna Brunner
The presentation provides an overview of the content of the Austrian National Library digitized within the project Europeana Collections 1914-1918, which will be completely available online through Europeana by April 1914.It includes selected objects from the Collection for Planned Languages, music sheets from the Austrian Centre for Folk Songs, newspapers and different objects of the War Collection from the Picture Archive. The War Collection, which was created in 1915 by the Hofbibliothek (or Imperial Library; today known as the Austrian National Library), contains pamphlets, leaflets and other publicistic material (community newsletters, specials announcements of companies and societies, commemorative announcements), posters, photographs, small form graphics and children´s drawings.
The online content includes about 39,000 records, which provide a valuable source for both the everyday history of the First World War and the newer questions of historiography.
The focus of the lecture is on the presentation of the project and its content respectively, which will be illustrated by numerous visual examples. An important aim of the lecture is to show how the manifold, varied and valuable digital sources can support research on the one hand and meet the needs of the general public and educational institutions on the other. The presentation will highlight the fact that a large part of this content would never have been made available to the public if this project had not taken place.
Ad Pollé, Europeana 1914-1918, Europeana Foundation
Julia Welter, EFG1914, Deutsches Filminstitut
Thorsten Siegmann, Europeana Collections 1914-1918, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
The year 2014 will be marked by the international commemoration of the beginning of the First World War in the summer of 1914. The projects “Europeana Collections 1914-1918”, “European Film Gateway 1914”, and “Europeana 1914-1918” have digitized hundreds of thousands of sources from archives, museums, libraries, and individuals. These were made available to the general public on www.europeana1914-1918.eu (re-launch: 29.01.2014), making the portal the most important pan-European collection of original First World War source material.
The co-ordinators of the projects involved will give short presentations highlighting the work carried out and the results achieved:
- Europeana’s family history roadshows have been held in 12 countries so far, attended by thousands of ordinary people who want to have memorabilia digitised and to tell the stories of their family at war. In 2014, roadshows will be held in five more countries. Families are also encouraged to upload their pictures from World War 1 directly onto the site: www.european1914-1918.eu
- European Film Gateway 1914 is a partnership of 26 institutions. A unique body of work, featuring not only all of the phases and locations of War but also all genres from propaganda to anti-war films, has been contributed by 21 film archives. Over 660 hours of film and 5,500 film-related documents have been digitised. The project has been co-ordinated by the Deutsches Filminstitut in Frankfurt.
- Europeana Collections 1914-1918 has brought together 10 great European libraries and two other partners to digitise more than 400,000 documents from their collections – everything from rare trench newspapers to censored letters from troops. The project has been co-ordinated by the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz.
“Searching for Traces of 1914 in the Museum” – Daniel Groth
One topic, four museums, four countries and well over 100 pupils – that could be one description of the project “Searching for Traces of 1914 in the Museum”. In groups, the pupils chose one specific topic that they found especially interesting. For this, they went on a search for traces: In museums, archives, with family and friends and in their home villages.
The occasion for the project is the commemorative year 2014, the hundredth anniversary of the onset of the First World War. The LVR-Industriemuseum gave the impetus for the internet-based and medial cooperation with schools and museums in France, Belgium, Poland and Germany. In the foreground was the idea that the pupils find new access to the history of the First World War through their own research and local discoveries. The cooperation with international partners supplemented this regional perspective with a European angle of view.
The young people transferred their research results into creative medial contributions for a virtual exhibition, which you can visit on www.traces1914.eu. The range of topics that they chose themselves covers areas such as the home front, propaganda, (war) industry, to childhood, culture and religion. Media forms such as photo montages, texts, presentations, sound stories, videos and animations were created and are waiting to be discovered.
The presentation will give a short overview of the work in the project, present some of the virtual contributions and discuss the didactic potential of the project for remembering the First World War 100 years after its outbreak.
“Von Daten und Diensten: Angebotsformen bibliothekarischer Informationen und Services zum Ersten Weltkrieg” – Gregor Horstkemper
Durch die Digitalisierung und Bereitstellung von historischen Materialien können Bibliotheken nützliche Angebote für Forschung und Lehre, aber auch für Schulen, Weiterbildungseinrichtungen und die interessierte Öffentlichkeit aufbauen. Im Kontext der Einführung digitaler Arbeitsweisen in den Bibliotheken sind jedoch auch zahlreiche weitere Betätigungsfelder entstanden, aus denen Datenangebote und Dienste entwickelt wurden, die für verschiedene Zielgruppen von Nutzen sein können. Solche Angebotsformen werden in zunehmendem Maße so ausgerichtet, dass sie nicht allein im Rahmen von Portalen und Katalogen der Bibliotheken nutzbar sind, sondern direkt in Webangebote von Forschungseinrichtungen, Kulturinstitutionen und anderen Inhalteanbieter eingebunden werden können. Am Beispiel des Ersten Weltkriegs soll aufgezeigt werden, welche Optionen bereits nutzbar bzw. in Entwicklung begriffen sind. Neben der Darstellung der bereits nutzbaren Potentiale bibliothekarischer Datenbestände und Dienste sollen auch die Grenzen der Nachnutzbarkeit sowie die Herausforderungen bezüglich der Interoperabilität zwischen Daten und Diensten unterschiedlicher Anbieter thematisiert werden.
“Of Data and Delivery: Possible uses of library resources and services concerning the First World War”
Libraries digitize and provide historical materials for research and academic teaching purposes as well as for schools, further education institutions and the interested public. The establishment of digital instruments and related data-driven processes as part of the daily routine of librarians widened their area of activity and competence beyond the basic provision of digital reproductions. Rich bibliographic data, full text data and image data are provided not only in the form of library catalogues or library information portals but as separately usable data sources and services which can be integrated into websites and portals of research facilities, cultural institutions and other content providers. The First World War serves as example to address services which are already available or still in development. In addition to the presentation of potential use cases for library data and services it will be discussed which limitations and challenges concerning the usability and interoperability of library resources and related data services have to be considered.
“The First World War – Places of transition”
During two semesters, we, a group of students of Humboldt University Berlin, have worked intensively with the Europeana Collections 1914-1918 material to build a virtual exhibition based on the collection items provided by the Europeana Collections 1914-1918 project partners. Our talk will present a short sketch of our project “The First World War – Places of transition”. Starting from here we will focus on user perspectives and usability questions in regard to the Europeana portal. Thus we will try to highlight strengths and weaknesses of the collection and the Europeana portal in every day use for research and education. Our report “Europeana in action” should as well be understood as plea for the entanglement of the approaches in digitization, research and education.
The students Karen Bähr, Sophia Müller, Heiko Niebuhr, Hans Schimmerohn, Lukas Uhde
“The Allies of Greece during the First World War and the case of “L’Armée d’ Orient” – creating History from digitised sources” – Chryssoula Karamatsiou
This paper presents a project concerning the stay of the so-called “L’ Armée d’ Orient” which was stationed outskirts of Thessaloniki in Greek Macedonia, between 1915-1917. Actually, the Entente Powers had removed their “Army of the Orient” to Greece after their defeat of the battle of Callipoli.
As a matter of fact, thousands of French and English soldiers camped in Greece and this led to the entry of Greece to the First World War in 1917. However, the crucial significance of “L’ Armée d’ Orient” and the role it played for Greece is not known to our students. So, in this project students are invited to solve questions such as: Which was the impact of foreign army upon the natives of Thessaloniki? How did it affect social, cultural and everyday life among populations of the region? Giving their answers students will reconstruct a moment of everyday life in the specific era with the use of primary visual sources from Greek and French digital collections and from Europeana Collection, 1914-1918.
By working in groups students can enrich their studying methodology with the use of digital materials and tools, such as different digital sources. They can also build up new educational skills through discovering the historical past, interpreting it and connecting it to the present situation. This presentation will focus on creating digital storytelling and will also result in the construction of an e-historical book.
“Digital historical sources in teaching” – Ognjen Kovačević
Digitized historical sources have become very important in the process of teaching. Nevertheless, while using this type of Internet accessible sources, we meet so many obstacles and problems.
There is a problem concerning both teachers and pupils, which is dispersion of sources on the Internet as well as incomplete, non-existent, or incorrect explanations, so often provided by unqualified persons. Teachers who use the Internet accessible sources have problems of their locating, collecting, checking etc. Pupils are not motivated to use the sources they can find on the Internet because their teachers constantly warn them about the necessity of checking any material available, which leads to loss of confidence during the study. The necessities of teachers and pupils are therefore identical. Regarding the sources, they both want correct, complete and reliable information.
Educational portals and digital libraries offer such a possibility because they gather at one place all digitalized materials related to a certain topic or a period. In order to meet users’ requirements, it is necessary that professionals arrange these historical sources first. For usage of such portals in teaching or learning, it is necessary to pay attention to providing additional, useful content, good for attracting users and arousing their interest. Additional content should be focused on providing lesson preparations and plans, teaching standards, key terms, instructions, advices- for teachers; and for students different didactic material, games, quizzes, recommended objects.
“Digital sources in historical research – The users’ perspective” – Jörg Lehmann
Mass digitization provides several challenges for philologists who have concentrated so far on the close reading of a few canonical texts. What can be meaningful questions directed at a corpus as big as the literary texts and wartime memoirs provided by Europeana Collections 1914-1918? What methods can currently be used for the analysis of several hundred texts?
One of the answers to these challenges is “Distant Reading”, a term coined by the literary scholar Franco Moretti: The reading of several texts with the same topic reveals narrative patterns. Texts can therefore be concentrated in distinct groups. If these groups of texts are being correlated with biographical data of their authors, global question like the following ones can be answered: What are typical interpretations of the experience of the First World War? Is there a relation between social stratification and recurring interpretations?
Even more distant readings concentrate on metadata and formal features of the texts under considerations. Within a large corpus like the Europeana Collections, the interplay between fictional and factual texts as well as their claims towards a ‘veracity of fiction’ or a ‘truth of the witnessed” can be analysed.
Die Massendigitalisierung stellt die Philologie vor eine Reihe von Herausforderungen, hat sie sich doch bislang auf die intensive Lektüre kanonischer Texte konzentriert. Unter welchen Fragestellungen kann überhaupt ein derart großes Korpus wie jenes sinnvoll untersucht werden, das innerhalb der „Europeana Collections 1914-1918“ durch literarische Texte und Kriegserinnerungen gebildet wird? Mit welchen Methoden können gegenwärtig mehrere hundert Texte analysiert werden?
Eine der Antworten auf diese Herausforderungen ist „Distant Reading“; dieses Schlagwort wurde vom Literaturwissenschaftler Franco Moretti geprägt. Die Lektüre einer ganzen Reihe von Texten, die dasselbe Thema behandeln, fördert Erzählmuster zutage. Die Texte können daher in distinkte Gruppen unterteilt werden. Wenn diese Textgruppen mit den biographischen Daten der Autoren korreliert werden, können auch globale Fragen wie die folgenden beantwortet werden: Was sind typische Deutungen des Ersten Weltkriegs? Gibt es eine Korrelationen zwischen einer sozialen Schichten und wiederkehrenden Interpretationen?
Noch distanziertere Lesarten konzentrieren sich auf die Metadaten und die formalen Kennzeichen der Texte. Innerhalb eines so großen Korpus wie den „Europeana Collections“ können die Wechselwirkung zwischen fiktionalen und faktualen Texten ebenso wie ihre Ansprüche auf eine „Wahrhaftigkeit der Fiktion“ wie auch eine „Wahrheit des Erlebten“ in den Blick genommen werden.
“The path to the war: French Press, Public opinion and the murder of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo (June-July 1914)” – Yohann Le Tallec
The French national Library is involved in one of the most interesting current European projects, Europeana14-18 which aims to give in open access digital European corpora. Among the corpora provided, the French national Library has decided to provide to the project press issues related to the murder of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in June 1914 which led, through the mechanism of military alliances, to the outbreak of the First World war.
This studies at the crossroad of technical aspects (what we could expect from optical recognition of characters and named entity recognition processes regarding the physical constraints of such a corpus) and intellectual ones both in terms of valorisation and from an epistemological point of view (how the use of new technologies allows new way of understanding the past). We intend first to present the latest technological developments concerning named entity recognition process applied to a corpus characterized by poor quality both of the paper and the ink. Regarding named entity recognition, we have used the results of the very first OCR outputs in order to evaluate existing named entities resources thanks to dictionaries specially dedicated to this purpose.
We have applied this process to the study of the French public opinion during the days following the murder of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. Using title such as Le Temps, Le Figaro and l’Humanité, we have mainly focus on the awareness of the possible consequences of this murder during these turning point days which led to the war. Our study intends to share with the community the very first results of this original and ambitious study which not belong only to French History but to European memory.
“Records of the New York Office of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1914 – 1918” – Linda Levi
The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) was established in 1914 to provide aid to destitute Jews in Palestine and Eastern Europe. Many of these Jews lived in deplorable conditions caused by persecution, poverty and the upheavals of World War I. The JDC Archives offers a unique window into Jewish relief efforts during 1914-1918, and throughout the 20th century.
In recent years, the JDC Archives has digitized 1.8 million pages of textual materials and more than 50,000 photographs dating from 1914 to the present. Included in the digitized materials are the Records of the New York Office of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1914 – 1918, which illuminate the “everyday life” of caretakers, administrators, medical workers, diplomats and others who were charged with leading the relief efforts.
During the War, the JDC transferred funds and supplies to Jewish communities with the help of foreign consuls and relief organizations already operating abroad. Through these conduits, JDC shipped food, clothing, medicine and money; supported soup kitchens and other meal programs for starving people; and enabled individual American Jews to send help to their loved ones abroad. These efforts are described in correspondence, photographs, administrative records, pamphlets and other textual and pictorial forms in the 1914-1918 collection.
The fully digitized 1914-1918 collection can be accessed via the JDC Archives’ web portal (archives.jdc.org). The collection is described in various formats, including a finding aid, an online exhibition, a photo gallery, and through general search functions.
The Records of the New York Office of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1914 – 1918 are an invaluable resource for students, scholars, journalists, authors, curators, genealogists, and the general public. Further examination of these records will shed new light on the “everyday lives” of European Jews in World War I, and those who provided the critical aid that helped them survive.
“Europeana Newspapers Project: Value, Access & Sustainability” – Hans-Jörg Lieder
Presently the Europeana experience is reminiscent of a casual pedestrian strolling through town and marvelling at shop-windows: a multitude of images on display accompanied by very little metadata necessary for basic retrieval functionalities and not much else.
With the advent of full-texts this scenario will change dramatically: Europeana will need mechanisms to allow for proper search and retrieval operations in these texts. Provided such mechanisms will be successfully implemented, the character of Europeana will change to become a truly useful information and research portal.
The Europeana Newspapers Project (ENP) is one of the first initiatives to create full-texts for Europeana. In order to enable proper usage of the text resources, the project has developed a special interface – a piece of software that allows for easy searching and navigation, and will lobby for this software to be implemented in Europeana. Providing text resources and search and retrieval mechanisms should, however, be viewed as a first step only. Which other services will Europeana eventually provide to the users of text resources?
The lecture will demonstrate the functionalities of the ENP’s interface and will present some concepts and ideas about possible future services to be developed in environments mainly characterised by legal restrictions and local business models.
“Embedding Community Collections within the Community: user-generated content to support public-engagement, education and knowledge exchange” – Kate Lindsay
Kate Lindsay, Ylva Berglund Prytz and Alun Edwards: Academic IT, University of OxfordContact: email@example.com
As the Centenary of the First World War approaches a plethora of projects and activities have begun to engage the public in national remembrance and commemoration. Many of these involve the collection of memories and experiences of the War passed down through families and across communities. However, such crowdsourcing projects offer more than the opportunity to build and preserve valuable collections. They have the potential to engage the public and to increase notions of agency and ownership, as well as facilitating new opportunities for knowledge exchange and education through building interfaces between researchers, memory institutions and the wider community.
This paper will outline the Oxford Community Collection Model, then present initiatives facilitated by theRunCoCo Service at the University of Oxford to explore the different waysonline community collections such as The Great War Archive (www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa) and Europeana 1914-1918 (www.europeana1914-1918.eu) are being used to support education and community-based engagement. It will look at how the crowdsourcing process itself, and the subsequent uses of the collections,can facilitate new community understandings and reconnections with the past.
“The experience of the Great War between the digital sources and family memories” – Emanuele Martinez
The Central Museum of the Risorgimento in Rome has started since 2007 History of Educational Workshops for schools to explore the use of new instruments for historical research. The main features of these laboratories are the mode of approach to the documentary sources and make available to teachers on the web a large amount of documents of various types (letters, diaries, photographs, films, memorabilia, etc..) And useful for the purpose of greater interdisciplinary nature of the study subjects. On the occasion of the beginning of First World War, the Central Museum of the Risorgimento and the Central Institute for the Union Catalogue started a project focusing on the teaching of memory of the Great War through digital archives, documents and testimonies family. The strength of this project is the interactive use of the web (www.europeana 14-18 and www.14-18.it), presented both as a place from where to acquire documentary material, both as a place to implement family-historical documentation. From web browsing students acquire a series of digital objects that are read in order to establish all the information. After these meetings, the students involved are invited to tell a story using a collection of digital materials on the web by using new digital stories, able to combine social digital technologies (digital cameras, video, programs for video editing). After these meetings, the students involved are invited to tell a story using a collection of digital materials on the web by using new digital stories, able to combine social digital technologies (digital cameras, video, programs for video editing). Combining then encoded digital sources (those found on websites) technologies with more immediate and less codified. A form of historical research that retrieves methodologies of social networks can transmit information through visual content (photos, videos). This technique to get a comparison with the history of the past, and in this case with that of the Great War, has now led to the involvement of partners such as atria Cinecittà LUCE, as an institution which holds the historical memory of the twentieth century filmic Italy (and with a fully searchable digital archive on the network) and Teatro Stabile, such as the Teatro Argentina in Rome for the activation of laboratories dramatization of documents from private writing (letters, diaries, etc..). The experience of history becomes a digital story dramatized and ready to be poured and shared on the network.
Il Museo Centrale del Risorgimento di Roma ha avviato dal 2007 dei Laboratori Didattici sperimentali sulla storia rivolti alle scuole. Le principali caratteristiche di questi laboratori sono la modalità di avvicinamento alle fonti documentarie e il mettere a disposizione degli insegnanti sul web una vasta mole di documenti di varia tipologia (lettere, diari, fotografie, filmati, cimeli ecc.) ed utili ai fini di una maggiore interdisciplinarietà delle materie di studio. In occasione della ricorrenza dello scoppio della Prima guerra mondiale, il Museo Centrale del Risorgimento e l’Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico hanno avviato un progetto di didattica incentrato sulla Memoria della Grande Guerra attraverso documenti digitali d’archivio e testimonianze familiari. Punto di forza di questo progetto è l’utilizzo interattivo del web (www.europeana 14-18 e www.14-18.it), presentato sia come luogo da dove acquisire materiale documentario, sia come luogo da implementare con documentazione storico-familiare. Dalla consultazione del web si acquisiscono una serie di oggetti digitali che vengono letti in modo da trarne tutte le informazioni. Al termine degli incontri, gli studenti coinvolti sono invitati a raccontare una storia impiegando la collezione di materiali digitali presente sul web utilizzando nuove storie digitali, in grado di combinare tecnologie digitali social (fotocamere digitali, videotelefoni, programmi per montaggio video). Combinando quindi fonti digitali codificate (quelle presenti sui siti web) con tecnologie più immediate e meno codificate. Una forma di ricerca storica che recupera quelle metodologie dei social network, in grado di trasmettere informazioni tramite contenuti visivi (foto, filmati). Questa tecnica di mettersi a confronto con la storia del passato, e in questo caso con quella della Grande Guerra, ha portato oggi al coinvolgimento di atri partner come Cinecittà LUCE, quale istituzione detentrice delle memoria storica filmica dell’Italia del Novecento (e con un archivio interamente consultabile in digitale sulla rete) e un Teatro Stabile, come il Teatro Argentina di Roma per l’attivazione di laboratori di drammatizzazione su documenti tratti dalla scrittura privata (lettere, diari ecc.). L’esperienza della storia diventa così un racconto digitale drammatizzato e già pronto per essere riversato e condiviso sulla rete.
“Forschung, Öffentlichkeit und Erster Weltkrieg” – Sönke Neitzel
Selten gab es so viel Aufmerksamkeit für den Ersten Weltkrieg wie heute. Der 100. Jahrestag des Kriegsausbruchs hat geradezu einen Hype in ganz Europa ausgelöst. Unzählige Publikationen, Konferenzen, Ausstellungen, Fernsehdokumentationen und Gedenkveranstaltungen sind für 2014 geplant. Der Vortrag wirft einen kritischen Blick auf das Spannungsfeld zwischen öffentlichem Interesse und akademischer Forschung, spürt den nationalen Unterschieden im Umgang mit dem Ersten Weltkrieg nach und fragt nach der Rolle neuer Quellen für unser Bild der „Urkatastrophe“ des 20. Jahrhunderts.
Rarely there has been so much attention for the First World War as today. The 100th anniversary of 1914 has virtually evoked a real hype in Europe. Countless publications, conferences, exhibitions, documentaries and commemorative events are scheduled for 2014. This paper takes a critical look at the interaction of public interest and academic research, discusses different national approaches in dealing with the First World War and asks about the role of new sources for our perception of the “seminal catastrophe” of the 20th century.***
“Geolocating the First World War: itineraries and trenches on the frontline along the Piave River and Mt. Grappa” – Manlio Piva
This project was created with the objective of passing on the history of the First World War through itineraries that combine historical knowledge with innovative didactic methods and computer technologies.
It is addressed to grade 11 and 12 high school students who will study the most important moments of the first world war on the Italian frontline using photography, cinema and historic documents which will give the students the opportunity to participate in some “tours of the battle grounds” between the hills of Mt. Grappa, a few bunkers on the Montello and along the Piave River.
Using photography students will discover things that are difficult to imagine today and they will also see how the war has changed our territory. All of these experiences will be shared with the world using geo – software technology that the students will learn how to use in class. This kind of technology will give them the possibility of creating virtual tours by inserting documents, explanations in different languages, old and new pictures, historical videos, documentaries, fiction and other useful material for an “ecomuseum” of the First World War focusing on providing information for use in tourism.
Students will be taken to the places chosen to be geo-localized. They will personally research the material to be placed on the map based on their school curriculum and on their personal interests.
The second step of the experimental program will test the tour. This part will be done by a high school that studies tourism. A class will create their own tour based on the first itinerary inserted and geolocated online from the students of the first part of the project. The tourism class will also have to underline the positive and negative aspects of the tour removing or integrating material to make it better.
This experiment wants to highlight the potentiality of an active participatory teaching method with the intent of recreating past events from the bottom up, getting students to put into practice historic research methods, modernizing and interpreting the events that happened during the First World War using the outlines found online. It will also be a good experience for the teachers who will have the chance to update and upgrade their teaching methods by observing the instructors who, alongside the teachers, will guide the lessons.
The successfulness of this experiment is based on plans to include as many Italian schools as possible in order to geolocate all the main sites of the Italian frontlines during the First World War. In this way the schools will have the opportunity to participate in the creation of a virtual “ecomuseum” of the Great War with the objective of producing information on the history of the war as well as provide itineraries for tourism.
Manlio Piva and his graduates: Daniele Agostini, Tommaso Ferronato, Simone Padovani, Cristina Toso***
“Der „Ausbruch“ des Ersten Weltkriegs in internationalen Geschichtsmagazinen: Ausgangspunkt für digitale Lernmaterialien mit interkulturellem und medienkritischem Schwerpunkt” – Susanne Popp / Miriam Hannig
Das europäische Projekt EHISTO (European history crossroads as pathways to intercultural and media education; URL: http://www.european-crossroads.de/) befasst sich mit populären Geschichtsmagazinen aus Großbritannien, Polen, Schweden, Spanien und Deutschland. Es reagiert auf die wachsende Bedeutung kommerzieller Geschichtsdarstellungen im öffentlichen Raum, die den EU-Standards für historische Bildung vielfach nicht gerecht werden, jedoch auf das Geschichtsbild der Leser, auch von Schülerinnen und Schüler, einwirken.
Vor diesem Hintergrund erarbeitet EHISTO, auf der Grundlage komparatistischer Forschung, Unterrichtsmaterialien zu „European History Crossroads“, die mit multiperspektivischen und international vergleichenden Zugängen den europäischen Horizont des nationalen Geschichtsunterrichts erweitern und zugleich interkulturelle und medienkritische Kompetenzen fördern wollen. Es entstehen Online-Materialien für den Unterricht und die Lehreraus- und -fortbildung.
Der Beitrag präsentiert erste Arbeitsergebnisse zum Thema „‚Ausbruch‘ des Ersten Weltkriegs, einer der ausgewählten „European History Crossroads“.
The „Outbreak“ of the First World War in international history magazines: starting point for digital learning resources with a focus on interculturality and media criticism”
The European project EHISTO (European history crossroads as pathways to intercultural and media education; URL: http://www.european-crossroads.de/) is concerned with popular history magazines from Great Britain, Poland, Sweden, Spain and Germany. The project responds to the increasing significance of a commercialised mediation of history within the general public and reflects the fact that these representations do not always meet the EU standards for history education but have a lasting impact on the young generation’s understanding of history.
Against this background and on the basis of comparative research, EHISTO develops learning materials for „European History Crossroads“. These modules offer a multi-perspective and international comparative access to history, which broadens the horizon for national history education in Europe and also enhances intercultural and critical media skills. The project creates online material for teaching in the classroom as well as for the education and training of teachers.
The contribution will present first results regarding the topic ‚Outbreak‘ of the First World War, one of the topics of „European History Crossroads“.
“LINKED_IN – A digital network which links the stories of 30,000 young Europeans” – Pierluigi Sanzovo
The focus of our project is to enhance on-line digital resources detailing the military and private lives of soldiers from many different countries who died during The Great War on the area of the mid-lands of the river Piave, in the Veneto region of Northern Italy. Here, between November 1917 and June 1918, soldiers from Italy, France and Great Britain fought gallantly against soldiers from Germany, Austria, Hungary. Using on-line national resources, our project aims to catalogue more than 30,000 soldiers who are buried in the area. Other online resources, such as the more common search engines, regimental diaries, personal diaries, memoirs, blogs and themed forums provide an additional source of reference materials. The culmination of our cataloguing will result in a digital database which will allow the reader access to extensive information about the tragic stories of those young Europeans. Processing of the data is already up and running in two projects involving students in schools. The first project is involved in cataloguing the 416 British soldiers buried in the Giavera British cemetery and involves students from an English school. The second project aims to find the names of soldiers reported as missingby the Italian military archives in the Montello hill. This project involves students and schools from all regions of Italy, each of whom will focus on soldiers who were born in their city.
“Stimulating the use of digital heritage in history education” – Steven Stegers
There is a wealth of digital heritage available, with an enormous potential for re-use in educational contexts. This is certainly true for the First World War. How can you make these materials usable for a larger audience? And how can we help history educators in using these resources to their full potential? These are the challenges that EUROCLIO and Webtic are working on with a group of history educators from across Europe within the Historiana programme. This presentation will focus on the challenges, opportunities and work done with in the History Education Pilot of the EuropeanaCreative project, which aims to stimulate re-use of Europeana content in History Education. The presentation will include a demonstration of the tools that are being developed that history educators can use to make their own online application that make use digital heritage to learn about and from history. All the content in the History Education Pilot is focusing on the First World War.
“Wrapping and Unwrapping History: What’s Gained and What’s Lost” – Adrian Stevenson
The UK based World War Discovery project (http://ww1.discovery.ac.uk) has built an aggregation layer drawing together WW1 digital content from a range of sources. Core to the creation of this aggregation layer is the vision and approach outlined by UK funder JISC’s ‘Discovery’ programme (http://discovery.ac.uk), which aims to make resources more discoverable both by people and machines.
The aggregation layer aims to be a ‘real-world’ exemplar of what can be achieved using the Discovery principles, thereby ensuring a positive contribution towards the WW1 centenary programme being coordinated across the UK public-sector. Two separate interfaces have been developed on top of the aggregation layer to demonstrate ways in which content can be presented to maximise opportunities for educational and research innovation.
The aggregation is built upon data made available via machine-readable interfaces (APIs) from libraries, archives and museums, including Europeana’s own API. We’ve produced a lightweight WW1 subject API based on the SOLR technology providing data in developer friendly forms including JSON and XML.
We will present the outcomes and experiences of this project, highlighting the benefits as well as the challenges and issues. We will address how the online aggregation approaches adopted by both Europeana and ourselves may directly or indirectly ‘mediate’ history. We will give an indication of the merits of our ‘unlocking’ approach and provide some personal reflections on the wider implications for research and teaching.
“Immersive Storytelling” – Emanuela Zilio
The visual storytelling applied to disseminate the Cultural Patrimony is still today a narrative technique under-used. The number of times we meet interactive and immersive storytelling is even less.
The three Studios will present a collection of meaningful case histories and will introduce a sample of powerful approaches to manage properly and share high quality contents. Videos, panoramas and interaction are the adopted languages to promote unlocking sources. Presented strategies include: crowdsourcing, gamification, viralization and edutainment. For each of them, high impact videos and interactive projects will be shown.
We believe, beyond the new technologies, content is the king. To promote the Cultural Patrimony and move an emotional impact as an efficient driver able to improve knowledge and foster economic growth, we need to adopt a new glance on things and listen to the whole human senses.